As the longest serving president of an international court, I am well-versed in convincing rather than decreeing. National courts in the EEA/EFTA States are not legally obliged to refer cases and to implement the Court’s judgments. And the ECJ will only follow the EFTA Court if it is persuaded of its solution. I do, moreover, have experience as an arbitrator and an expert witness in major cases.


Arbitrator and expert witness in major arbitration cases.

Judge in over 260 EFTA Court cases concerning the whole range of European single market law; President in 234 cases; Judge Rapporteur in many of the Court’s landmark cases.

Judge Rapporteur, inter alia, in Cases

E-2/97 Maglite (international exhaustion of trademark rights),

E-3/97 Opel Norge (admission to a motor vehicle distribution system),

E-1/98 Astra Norge (abuse of copyright),

E-1/99 Finanger (taking a ride in a motor vehicle driven by an intoxicated motorist),

E-3/00 Kellogg’s (nutritional argument and precautionary principle in food law),

E-1/02 University of Oslo (positive discrimination in favour of the under-represented gender),

E-3/02 Paranova v Merck (repackager of pharmaceuticals adding his own design),

E-2/03 Ásgeirsson (rules of origin in trade in fish, fundamental rights),

E-1/04 Fokus Bank (taxation of outbound dividends),

E-4/04 Pedicel (national prohibition against alcohol advertisement),

E-01/06 Gaming Machines (State gambling monopoly),

E-3/06 (State gambling monopolies),

E-1/10 Periscopus (no adjustment of bid price with reference to term “market price” under the Takeover Bid Directive),

E-14/10 Konkurrenten (State aid),

E-15/10 Norway Post (scope of judicial review of fining decisions by competition authorities),

E-9/11 Regulated Markets I (ownership limitations and voting rights restrictions in stock exchanges and central securities depositories),

E-14/11 DB Schenker I (private plaintiff as a private attorney general, presumption against access to documents limited to merger and State aid cases),

E-16/11 Icesave I (no liability of the State for deposits in foreign branches of a domestic bank in a systemic crisis),

E-18/11 Irish Bank (teleological interpretation of the Winding Up Directive, modalities of the preliminary ruling procedure in the EFTA pillar),

E-15/12 Wahl (denial of entry into Iceland of a Norwegian Hells Angel under the Citizenship Directive),

E-27/13 Gunnarsson and E-25/13 Engilbertsson (indexation of mortgage loans, unfair terms),

E-14/15 Holship (collective bargaining and industrial action vs. competition law and fundamental freedoms),

E-29/15 Sorpa (municipal body capable of abusing a dominant position),

E-3/16 Ski Taxi (joint bidding, restriction of competition by object),

E-5/16 Vigeland (trademark registration of a work of art after expiry of copyright protection, public domain),

E-16/16 Fosen-Linjen (simple breach of public procurement law sufficient to trigger liability of contracting authority),

E-15/16 Yara (risk of tax avoidance, prohibition of abuse of rights),

E-19/16 Thue (travel time is working time under the Working Time Directive).

Presidential orders, inter alia, in Cases

E-16/11 Icesave I (admission of the European Commission as an intervener),

E-18/14 Wow Air (allocation of slots at congested airports, protection of competition, accelerated preliminary ruling procedure)

E-21/16 Nobile (judicial independence, integrity of the Court, accelerated preliminary ruling procedure)

Significant publications

Towards general standards concerning the independence and impartiality of arbitrators, in: Christian Cascante/Andreas Spahlinger/Stephan Wilske (Hrsg.), Global wisdom on business transactions, international law and dispute resolution, Festschrift für Gerhard Wegen zum 65. Geburtstag, 20 April 2015, 575-591.

“Law – Made in Germany” – Has it paid off?, in: Werner F. Ebke/Dirk Olzen/Otto Sandrock (Hrsg.), Festschrift für Siegfried H. Elsing zum 65. Geburtstag, 2015, 731-743.

Arbitration in Public International Disputes, in: Baudenbacher, Carl (Hrsg.), Dispute Resolution, Stuttgart: German Law Publishers 2009, 265-297 (with Frank Bremer).

Enforcement of EC and EEA Competition Rules by Arbitration Tribunals Inside and Outside the EU, in: Ehlermann, Claus/ Atanasiu, Isabela, European Competition Law Annual 2001: Effective Private Enforcement of EC Antitrust Law, Oxford – Portland Oregon 2003, 339-360.

Decentralization of EC Competition Law Enforcement and Arbitration, Columbia Journal of European Law (Colum. J. E. Eur. L.) 2002, 1-18 (with Imelda Higgins).

Die Bedeutung des EG-Kartellrechts für Schweizer Schiedsgerichte, Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für Schweizerisches Recht 20, Basel: Helbing & Lichtenhahn, 1996, ISBN: 3-7190-1503-3 (mit Anton K. Schnyder).